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Learning to program is hard, everyone that has done so can attest to that. Contrary to topics like mathematics and language which we have been teaching for hundreds of years, programming education is relatively new. Therefore there are many open questions such as:

  • what is the best age to learn programming?
  • what concepts confuse children most?
  • how should a teacher teach programming if they do not know a lot about it themselves.

These are the type of research questions that we aim to address within the PERL group. We teach the Master course Psychology of Programming in the Spring semester.

The Programming Education Research Lab is hosted at LIACS, the Leiden Institute for Advanced Computer Science.


This post is also available in: nlNederlands


  • Felienne Hermans


  • Efthimia Aivaloglou (with OU)
  • Marileen Smit (with FutureNL)


  • Anna van der Meulen
  • Alaaeddin Swidan

PhD students

  • Robert Holwerda
  • Marlies Aldewereld
  • Bas Jansen (also with TU Delft)
  • Mozhan Soltani

MSc students

  • Charlotte Thepass
  • Shirley de Wit
  • Lizzy Scholten
  • Bart Heemskerk
  • Krishna Thiruvengadam
  • Jacob Jonkman

BSc students

  • Tessa Krabbendam
  • Martijn Strating
  • Benjamin Bosdijk
  • Stef Dubbeldam