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Learning to program is hard, everyone that has done so can attest to that. Contrary to topics like mathematics and language which we have been teaching for hundreds of years, programming education is relatively new. Therefore there are many open questions such as:

  • what is the best age to learn programming?
  • what concepts confuse children most?
  • how should a teacher teach programming if they do not know a lot about it themselves.

These are the type of research questions that we aim to address within the PERL group. We teach the Master course Psychology of Programming in the Spring semester.

The Programming Education Research Lab is hosted at LIACS, the Leiden Institute for Advanced Computer Science.

PERL team

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Stafleden/Staff Members

  • Felienne Hermans
  • Efthimia Aivaloglou
  • Marileen Smit


  • Anna van der Meulen
  • Sabiha Yeni

PhD studenten/s

  • Vivian van der Werf
  • Xiaoling Zhang (also with TU Delft)
  • Xiaohua Jia
  • Giulio Barbero
  • Marcella Veldthuis (also with Haagse Hogeschool)
  • Shirley de Wit (also with VHTO)
  • Olivier Goletti (also with University of Louvain)
  • Bas Jansen (with TU Delft)

MSc studenten/s

  • Timon Bakker
  • Nicole de Groot

BSc studenten/s

  • Femke Slangen
  • Thera Smit
  • Omid Nasrat
  • Kousar Sedigi
  • Laura Ottevanger
  • Frederieke Hörchner
  • Jie Wu
  • Ruben Wijnia

Voormalige/Former PERLs